This flash blog post will address a very specific and common problem : how to manage entities/concepts composed by multiple terms in a vanilla Apache Solr/Elasticsearch instance ( no plugins or extensions to install).

The (deployment) context

An Elasticsearch or Apache Solr infrastructure where you cannot install third-party components (e.g. plugins, filters, query parsers). This can happen for several reasons:

  • endogenous factors: lack of required expertise/skills for implementing/installing things in your infrastructure.
  • exogenous factors: search capabilities live in an external and managed context which doesn’t allow custom components. This happens for example with services like the Amazon Elasticsearch Service [1].

The Problem

How can I model multi-terms concepts (i.e. concepts composed by multiple terms)?

Concepts are a fundamental piece of a domain specific vocabulary: “United States of America”, “Phone Number”, “Out of Warranty” are just examples of entities you probably want to manage as a whole; if a user searches something like “How can I transfer a Phone Number?” you probably don’t want to return things about numbers or phones, which have a broader scope (i.e. sacrificing precision in favour of recall) .

Note, “probably” is in bold because there’s not an absolute truth here: everything depends on the functional context where the application is running. Here we assume this requirement, but things could be different in another context.

Index/Query Time Solutions

The problem can be solved using two different approaches that involves Indexing time and Query time configurations :

  • Simple Contraction: using the SynonymFilter with Simple Contraction [2] [3] in order to inject a single term that represents the concepts (with optional synonyms)
Multimedia Messaging Service,Multimedia Text Message => mms
  • Shingles: combining shingles and a keep word filter for generating bigrams and trigrams from a given text (assuming we are limiting our interest only to concepts composed by a maximum of 3 terms)

…an Additional Constraint: Query-Time Only

One of the drawbacks of the first group (index + query time) is the cost of reindexing the whole dataset when a change occurs in the synonyms or in the keywords list. So the additional constraint we will introduce is: we want to be able to change the concepts list at runtime without any reindexing.

Again, this is not an absolute constraint: there are a lot of scenarios where reindex everything is completely ok. In my experience this has a direct correlation with the index size plus how the whole reindexing process takes.

So in other words: if the full reindexing process takes a reasonable amount of time and it doesn’t produce any service interruption, then you should consider removing the “query-time only” constraint.

A Solution

The synonym management has been enhanced in Elasticsearch and Apache Solr [4], with the introduction of “graph-aware” token filters, for enabling a full support of Multi-Word Synonyms. 

Prior to that, both index/query time and query time approaches suffered from some limitations when dealing with synonyms [5].

In any case, the current implementation allows us to correctly manage multi-word synonyms as a whole. So, coming back to our question, we can try to “shape” the synonym filter at our wills for managing compound concepts as well.

First, a compound concept can or cannot have synonyms.

Concept with Synonym(s)

If the concept has one or more synonyms, we are within a regular context of the synonym filter. Here’s a sample content of the synonyms.txt file:

Multimedia Messaging Service,Multimedia Text Message,MMS
USA,United States of America

Here’s the corresponding configuration:

<fieldtype name="txt" 
       <analyzer type="index">
           <tokenizer class="solr.StandardTokenizerFactory"/>
           <filter class="solr.LowerCaseFilterFactory"/>
       <analyzer type="query">
           <tokenizer class="solr.StandardTokenizerFactory"/>
           <filter class="solr.LowerCaseFilterFactory"/>
<field name="title" type="txt" indexed="true" stored="true"/>

"analysis": {
    "filter": {
      "english_synonyms": {
         "type": "synonym_graph",
         "synonyms_path": "synonyms.txt",
         "expand": true
    "analyzer": {
      "text_index_analyzer": {
        "tokenizer": "standard",
        "filter": [ "lowercase" ]
      "text_query_analyzer": {
        "tokenizer": "standard",
        "filter": [
"properties": {
   "title": {
      "type": "text",
      "analyzer": "text_index_analyzer",
      "search_analyzer": "text_query_analyzer"

Issuing the following queries:

q={!lucene}multimedia messaging service&sow=false&df=title

  "query": {
     "match": {
       "title": "Multimedia messaging service"

   "query": {
     "query_string": {
       "query": "Multimedia messaging service",
       "default_field": "title",

produces (use debug=true in Solr or _validate/query?explain=true in Elasticsearch) the following query:

(PhraseQuery(title:"multimedia text message") 
 PhraseQuery(title:"multimedia messaging service"))

which is exactly what we want: the concept expressed in the query has been detected and the output query is looking for its expanded (united states of america) or contracted (usa) form. So far, so good.

Concept without Synonyms

What about if a multi-term concept doesn’t have any variant/synonym but we still want to manage it as a whole? Can we use the synonym filter without synonyms? Let’s try to see what happens.

The first obvious idea is to declare something like this, in our synonyms.txt:

Multimedia Messaging Service  

That is, a line containing our concept without any synonym. Unfortunately this is not working, the engine detects there are no synonyms and the resulting query is something like this:

title:multimedia title:messaging title:service

The same happens if you put a dummy synonym which is removed later, in the indexing chain, by a stopword filter. Something like:

Multimedia Messaging Service, something_that_will_be_configured_as_stopword

So the last chance is to duplicate the entry: something like this:

Multimedia Messaging Service,Multimedia Messaging Service

Here things start to be interesting. Running the same queries above we got the following explain:

(PhraseQuery(title:"multimedia messaging service") 
 PhraseQuery(title:"multimedia messaging service"))

title:"multimedia messaging service"^2.0

The phrase query is doubled, which means the score assigned to matches will reflect this, as illustrated in the example explain below (see the 2.0 boost):

4.544185 = sum of:
  4.544185 = weight(title:"multimedia messaging service" in 1) [SchemaSimilarity], result of:
    4.544185 = score(doc=1,freq=1.0 = phraseFreq=1.0
), product of:
      2.0 = boost
      2.7725887 = idf(), sum of:
        0.6931472 = idf, computed as ... from:
          1.0 = docFreq
          2.0 = docCount
        0.6931472 = idf, computed as ... from:
          1.0 = docFreq
          2.0 = docCount
        0.6931472 = idf, computed as ... from:
          1.0 = docFreq

That is, the score of the match above would have been 2.2720926 (4.544185 / 2) but since we have that artificial boost it has been doubled; at the same time it’s important to underline our concept has been correctly managed as a whole, and the queries above won’t return items related with messages, multimedia or services, which are broader concepts.

Is that boost factor a problem? That actually depends on your application: you should

  • have a representative number of search cases
  • try a plain term-centric search
  • try the approach suggested above
  • use a search quality evaluation tool
  • compare and choose


  • You have an Elasticsearch or Apache Solr cluster
  • You cannot install custom plugins
  • You want to manage compound concepts
  • You don’t want to reindex your corpus when adding / removing / updating the concepts list
  • If a concept has one or more synonyms, this is quite straightforward: use the synonym (graph) filter at query time*
  • if a concept doesn’t have any synonym, you can still use the synonym (graph) filter: just double the concept definition, but keep in mind the double (2.0) boost applied to the corresponding phrase query*

* Apache Solr users: make sure the target field type has autoGeneratePhraseQueries set to true, and the sow parameter (defined in the RequestHandler settings or as a request parameter) set to true as well.






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